The « local cultural forces » : a history of the misunderstanding between the Bolsheviks and the rural populations of Soviet Russia, 1920-1932.
During the 1920s the Bolshevik leaders did not entrust the political education of the rural populations to peasants. They placed it in the charge of members of local intellectual professions who had no voice in community structures : physicians, vets, agronomers, and moreover primary school teachers. But the latter mostly spread literacy, they are not really able to politicise rural masses, and they are suspected of allegiance to the former SR Party. They do not become however a major target of State violence in the era of forced collectivisation during the early 1930s.